soil loss effect of plant litter incorporation rate under

soil loss effect of plant litter incorporation rate under


SOIL - Obtaining more benefits from crop residues as soil

Abstract. Crop residues are valuable soil amendments in terms of the carbon and other nutrients they contain, but the incorporation of residues does not always translate into increases in nutrient availability, soil organic matter (SOM), soil structure, and overall soil fertility. Studies have demonstrated accelerated decomposition rates of chemically heterogeneous litter mixtures, compared to

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Plant litter quality affects the accumulation rate

Plant litter quality had a much greater effect on litter-C mineralization rate and MAOM-C accumulation than did soil type or nutrient addition. Soils amended with high-quality oat and alfalfa litters had greater MAOM-C accumulation than soils amended with low-quality maize and soybean litters.

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Modeling the effects of litter stoichiometry and soil

The daily input rate of plant litter was set to 0.006 g C kg −1 soil day −1, and the initial C stock of litter and SOM pools was all set to be 0 g C kg −1 soil. During the simulation, soil temperature and soil water content were assumed to be 25 ∘ C and 60 % of water holding capacity, respectively.

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Decomposition, nitrogen and carbon mineralization from

Cover crops are a major focus of conservation agriculture efforts because they can provide soil cover and increase nutrient availability after their mineralization in cropping systems. To evaluate the effect of residue type and placement on rate of decomposition and carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization, residues from two food crops, maize (Zea mays L.) and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris

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How earthworms can help your soil

Earthworms feed on soil and dead or decaying plant remains, including straw, leaf litter and dead roots. They are the principal agents in mixing dead surface litter with the soil, making the litter more accessible to decomposition by soil microorganisms. Animal dung is also an attractive food for many species of earthworms.

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PDF Interactions of an introduced shrub and introduced

of each mesh type containing litter from each one of the four plant litter types were placed on the soil surface. These monospecific bags contained 5g of air-dried litter from the following species: Q. rubra, Q. alba, R. cathartica, and A. saccharum. Weights were recorded to the nearest 0.01g. The bags were put in the field on March 23, 2003. The

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PDF Grazing Management and Soil Health

Bare ground is soil not protected by plants, litter, or standing dead vegetation. Areas with bare soil, no matter how small, are at greater risk of runoff and erosion. Bare soil lacks protection from impacts of raindrops, detachment by wind, and temperature extreme. With continued overuse of desirable plants decrease, Percent Leaf Volume Removed

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Effects of Soil Compaction - Penn State Extension

Effects of Compaction on Crop Yields Soil Compaction Effects on Forages. The effect of traffic on alfalfa and grass sod is a combination of soil compaction and stand damage. In a recent study in Wisconsin and Iowa, annual alfalfa yield losses up to 37 percent due to normal field traffic were recorded.

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PDF Nutrient Management & Soil & Plant Analysis Simulating the

lids under shade during the winter until application for the spring treatment. The litter was incorporated into the soil on the same day with an incorporation in-tensity of 1.0, which means the litter was assumed to be completely incorporated into the soil. The litter was analyzed for total C and total N by the dry combus-

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Pingzong ZHU | PhD candidate | Beijing Normal University

Plant litter can control land degradation by increasing soil organic matter and decreasing soil erosion by covering the soil surface or being incorporated into topsoil. However, the effect of

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The Role of Soil pH in Plant Nutrition and Soil Remediation

In the natural environment, soil pH has an enormous influence on soil biogeochemical processes. Soil pH is, therefore, described as the "master soil variable" that influences myriads of soil biological, chemical, and physical properties and processes that affect plant growth and biomass yield. This paper discusses how soil pH affects processes that are interlinked with the biological

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PDF PLANTS for SALINE to SODIC SOIL CONDITIONS

Soil salinity can affect plant growth both physically (osmotic effect) and chemically (nutritient and/or toxicity effect). As the salt content of the soil increases, it becomes more difficult for plants to take up water. Sensitive plants appear drought-stricken even at fairly low levels of salt concentration. There is usually a

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Incorporation of carbon from decomposing litter of two

Therefore, the initial mass loss of plant litter during the first 4 weeks of incubation observed in the present study can be attributed to the large amounts of water soluble plant litter components (e.g. proteins, sugars, amino acids) that are used by microorganisms colonizing the litter material to increase their activity patterns and to

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Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling | Ohioline

Understanding Soil Microbes and Nutrient Recycling. Soil microorganisms exist in large numbers in the soil as long as there is a carbon source for energy. A large number of bacteria in the soil exists, but because of their small size, they have a smaller biomass. Actinomycetes are a factor of 10 times smaller in number but are larger in size so

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Soil and Vegetation Management: Water Conservation on

Mechanical methods such as axing, shredding or roller chopping add litter to the soil with relatively little soil disturbance. These methods are applicable on nonsprouting species or where retreatments can be applied (Fig. 8). Dozing, root-plowing, grub or chaining remove plants from the soil and create considerable soil disturbance.

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PDF Oecd Guideline for The Testing of Chemicals

careful mechanical incorporation with a grub or harrow is recommended to yield an even distribution of the test substance within the uppermost 10 cm soil layer. The control plots should be treated in the same way. Annual application 19. One to 2 weeks after incorporation, the litter bags should be buried in the soil to a depth of

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BENEFITS OF SOIL ORGANIC MATTER - SlideShare

8. Supply plant-available phosphorus and plant-available sulfur when soil humus is present (25% or more) 9. Furnish 30% to 70% of a soil's cation exchange capacity. The higher a soil's cation exchange capacity, the greater its ability to hold onto nutrients until needed by the plant and microbes. 10. Reduce Soil Erosion 11.

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Best Management Practices for Agricultural Nutrients | NC

However, incorporation disturbs the soil, which promotes soil erosion. Although surface application of nitrogen and phosphorus without incorporation is the least desirable fertilizer application method, it is often used for pastures, lawns, turf, other perennial crops, and in conservation-tilled fields because it is the easiest and least

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Earthworms - Scoop on Soil

Earthworms enhance porosity as they move through the soil. Some species make permanent burrows deep into the soil. These burrows can persist long after the inhabitant has died, and can be a major conduit for soil drainage, particularly under heavy rainfall. At the same time, the burrows minimize surface water erosion.

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Environmental Effects - Auburn University

Environmental Effects. Prescribed burning has direct and indirect effects on the environment. Proper use of prescribed fire, and evaluation of the benefits and costs of a burn require knowledge of how fire affects vegetation, wildlife, soil, water, and air and in turn how these impact humans especially in population centers.Burning techniques and timing of burns can be varied to alter fire

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Forests | Free Full-Text | Linking Vegetation, Soil Carbon

Various combinations of plant litter quality and composition of soil macrosaprophages can affect the balance between carbon sequestration in soil, its emission, and removal with soil waters. An experiment with litterfall of 16 common European tree species showed that the litter mass loss was significantly higher in the presence of earthworms

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